From Researching Virtual Initiatives in Education
For entities in New Zealand see Category:New Zealand
Partners and Experts situated in New Zealand
None - for any of Re.ViCa, VISCED and POERUP.
New Zealand members of VISCED IAC exist but have yet to be confirmed.
New Zealand in a nutshell
New Zealand (Maori: Aotearoa) is an geographically isolated island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean. It comprises two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island), and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing but in free association); Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica).
The population of New Zealand is around 4.1 million according to the CIA Factbook. This makes it rather similar in size to several European countries, rather larger than Lithuania, slightly smaller than Ireland and rather smaller than Norway. In UK terms, it is slightly smaller than Scotland (5.0 million) and slightly larger than Wales (3.0 million). Thus population-wise as well as politically and economically it is a good match to these countries/regions.
The indigenous Māori being the largest minority, the population is mostly of European descent. Also significant minorities are Asians and non-Māori Polynesians, especially in the urban areas. As a Commonwealth country with strong historic links with the UK in general and Scotland in particular, Elizabeth II is the Head of State. In her absence, she is represented by a non-partisan Governor-General. Actually the position of Queen Elizabeth II is essentially symbolic, and she has no real political influence. Political power is rather held by the democratically elected Parliament of New Zealand under the leadership of the Prime Minister, who is the head of government.
Education in New Zealand
In comparison with international standards New Zealand has a well performing education system. Therefore the focus of education policy lays on consolidation of education. This consolidation is carried out by creation of required infrastructure and in building up and support by institutions of quality-assurance. This way weaknesses in the educational system are to be identified at an early stage. Furthermore is the creation of an advantageous political environment for lecturers and learners intended. Special attention is paid to investments to peform better for and with Māori learners, Pasifika learners, children with specific barriers to learning and communities in lower socioeconomic areas.
The Ministry of Education’s Statement of Intent 2008-2013 (SOI) sets out key elements of appropriate priorities for education:
- increasing participation in high-quality early childhood education - increasing literacy and numeracy achievement in primary school - earlier identification of and intervention for children with specific barriers to learning.
- increasing engagement and achievement in secondary education so that young people stay at school longer and leave with higher-level qualifications - more successful pathways into tertiary education and work - higher levels of achievement in tertiary education by the age of 25.
- increasing numbers of high-quality teachers proficient in te reo Māori - increasing effectiveness of teaching and learning in and through te reo Māori.
- building an education system for the 21st-century - increasing education’s contribution to economic transformation and innovation through new knowledge, skills and research.
- building leadership, accountability, relationships, competence and confidence.
The New Zealand education system comprises following guiding principles: - culturally appropriate early childhood services - primary and secondary education that is free for New Zealand citizens and permanent residents - equitable and affordable access to tertiary education and quality assured and portable education qualifications - the provision of flexible pathways for study
Last item regards to the fact that students are not streamed or channeled through particular types of school from which future study options are determined.
Generally the education system in New Zealand is divided into:
Kindergarten education is usually run by private operators and not mandatory provided for all children. Primary school goes up to year 6, intermediate school finishes at year 8 and secondary school is the remaining five years of schooling. Between the ages of 6 and 16 Primary and Secondary education is compulsory for students.
Students who want to study at a New Zealand university need to meet a University Entrance (UE) standard. They need to achieve minimum standards at Levels 1, 2 and 3 of NCEA or the NQF.
They need to gain 42 or more credits at Level 3 or higher of the NQF from a specified range of subjects. Students must also gain specific literacy and numeracy standards.
Domestic students over 20 years of age may apply for entry without formal qualifications.
Equivalent international qualifications such as the International Baccalaureate and the Cambridge examinations are also accepted for UE. International students must fulfill minimum English language requirements for enrolment at tertiary institutions.
For more information on entry requirements go to the New Zealand Vice-Chancellors' Committee website.
Schools in New Zealand
((Needs to be completed.))
Further and Higher education
Universities in New Zealand
New Zealand has eight universities. Most used to be constituent colleges of the federal University of New Zealand but this was dissolved in 1961.
Until the year of 1961 the sole University of New Zealand (1870-1961) as by law founded Organization concentrated several constituent colleges of higher education at various locations around New Zealand.
Polytechnics in New Zealand
There are also 23 polytechnics or institutes of technology in New Zealand. A useful NZQA observes:
New Zealand has three public institutions designated as wānanga under the Education Act 1989. They are indigenous tertiary institutions that offer certificates (Levels 1-4), diplomas (Levels 5-6), and bachelors degrees (Level 7) at the minimum:
Related Documents of the wānangas:
Colleges in New Zealand
((Needs to be completed.))
In 1989, New Zealand embarked on a series of comprehensive, far-reaching educational reforms. These reforms replaced the Department of Education with a Ministry of Education largely restricted to the roles of policymaking and resource allocation and established a series of new educational agencies. Under "Tomorrow's Schools" (the school component of the reforms), decision making for most educational activities was devolved to individual schools, although the Ministry has a role in setting member-level requirements. For new teachers, Tomorrow's Schools meant that initial teaching appointments were no longer guaranteed through a member-level system; that inspectors no longer certified teachers’ competence to teach; and that schools became responsible for recommending the registration of teachers and for providing an Advice and Guidance Program (AGP). An outcome of the education reforms was to shift responsibility for teacher induction from bureaucrats, who are less familiar with individual needs and local contexts, to local professionals--school administrators and tutor teachers. (2)
The Bologna Process
Regardless that New Zealand is not eligible to join the Bologna Process, it is engaged in these higher education reforms. The tertiary education system of New Zealand is already comparable to the Bologna ideal. Closely align with the key elements of the Bologna Process do the three-level degree structure, Register of Quality Assured Qualifications, quality assurance standards, efforts at increasing participation in tertiary education, and policies that promote institutional autonomy. Beyond that one has been undertaken further work across the tertiary education system to build on this high level of comparability. Thus New Zealand has acceded to the Lisbon Qualification Recognition Convention, is checking the introduction of an Diploma Supplement, and is verifying the comparability of the Register of Quality Assured Qualifications with Ireland’s National Framework of Qualifications.
Administration and finance
Government directly provides all or most of the funding for state and "integrated schools" and about 25% of the funding for private schools. A significant portion of the extra funding is available, dependent on the decile rating (a measure used in New Zealand to determine the relative poverty of parents of children attending a particular school), with low decile schools receiving the greatest amount per enrolled child and high decile schools getting the least. As from 2010 the school rolls will be checked more often so that schools that expel a large number of children will have that money deducted. Schools cannot claim for students on exchange programmes. Schools also ask for a voluntary donation from parents, informally known as "school fees". This may range from $40 per child up to $800 per child in high decile schools.The payment of this fee varies widely according to how parents perceive the school. Typically parents will outlay $500–$1000 per year for uniforms, field trips, social events, sporting equipment and stationery at State funded schools. (3)
For information on school administration, see the relevant subsection in the 'Education Reform' section of this page.
Funding for tertiary education in New Zealand is through a combination of government subsidies and student fees. The government funds approved courses by a tuition grant based on the number of enrolled students in each course and the amount of study time each course requires. Courses are rated on an equivalent full-time Student (EFTS) basis. Students enrolled in courses can access Student Loans and Student Allowances to assist with fees and living costs.
Funding for Tertiary Institutions has been criticised recently due to high fees and funding not keeping pace with costs or inflation. Some also point out that high fees are leading to skills shortages in New Zealand as high costs discourage participation and graduating students seek well paying jobs off shore to pay for their student loans debts. As a result, education funding has been undergoing an ongoing review in recent years.
Most tertiary education students rely on some form of state funding to pay for their tuition and living expenses. Mostly, students rely on state provided student loans and allowances. Secondary school students sitting the state run examinations are awarded bursaries and scholarships, depending on their results, that assist in paying some tuition fees. Universities and other funders also provide scholarships or funding grants to promising students, though mostly at a postgraduate level. Some employers will also assist their employees to study (full time or part time) towards a qualification that is relevant to their work. People who receive state welfare benefits and are retraining, or returning to the workforce after raising children, may be eligible for supplementary assistance, however students already in full or part time study are not eligible for most state welfare benefits.
Student Allowances, which are non-refundable grants to students of limited means, are means tested and the weekly amount granted depends on residential and citizenship qualifications, age, location, marital status, dependent children as well as personal, spousal or parental income. The allowance is intended for living expenses, so most students receiving an allowance will still need a student loan to pay for their tuition fees.
The Student Loan Scheme is available to all New Zealand permanent residents and can cover course fees, course related expenses and can also provide a weekly living allowance for full time students. The loan must be repaid at a rate dependent on income and repayments are normally recovered via the income tax system by wage deductions. Low income earners and students in full time study can have the interest on their loans written off.
On 26 July 2005 the Labour Party announced that they would abolish interest on Student Loans, if re-elected at the September election, which they were. From April 2006, the interest component on Student Loans was abolished for students who live in New Zealand.
This has eased pressure on the government from current students. However it has caused resentment from past students many of whom have accumulated large interest loan portions in the years 1992–2006. As stated before many have reluctantly been forced to seek employment overseas in order to pay back their loans, with the UK and Australia gaining benefit from young, educated diaspora. (3)
Quality assurance, inspection and accreditation
The administration and quality assurance of national qualifications in New Zealand is primarily coordinated by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA). This body fulfills this role for both school level and higher qualifications.
Its web site: http://www.nzqa.govt.nz
The New Zealand Education Act prohibits use of the terms "degree" and "university" by institutions other than the country's eight accredited universities. In 2004 authorities announced their intention to take action against unaccredited schools using the words "degree" and "university". (4)
The Education Review Office is the government department that evaluates and reports on the education and care of students in schools and early childhood services. ERO’s reports are used by parents, teachers, early childhood education managers, school principals and trustees, and by Government policy makers.
For the OECD Review of Evaluation and Assessment in Education for New Zealand, please read here.
((Needs to be completed.))
ICT / e-learning in education initiatives
In 2008 Mark Nichols provided an overview of e-learning in tertiary education in New Zealand to inform a range of initiatves funded by the Minstry of Education.
CORE Education is a not-for-profit organisation providing professional development and supporting organisational change in schools nation-wide, providing thought leadership and expertise in e-learning, research and analysis, curriculum design, leadership development, and event management. CORE has a bi-cultural ethos, with a strong Māori team focussed on Māori educational development. Through a variety of e-learning approaches, CORE Education equips learners of all ages with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed. CORE’s focus in e-learning includes both the pedagogical and technological aspects of e-learning. This includes expertise in learning design, online communities, online tools for e-learning, video conferencing, and the use of advanced networks. CORE conducts quality research and evaluation relating to a range of national and international educational programmes in early childhood, schools, tertiary and industry sectors. CORE regularly reports to individual educational institutions, government, and international bodies on emerging trends involving the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. CORE has pioneered innovation within the school and ECE sector that has a strong emphasis on the development of curriculum and leadership, focused on localised and individualised needs, and delivered as whole-institution professional learning and development programmes. CORE has managed New Zealand's major education events for some years, and built a reputation both in New Zealand and overseas for class keynotes, spotlights, and inspirational workshop programmes. CORE's popular breakfast seminars held regularly in Christchurch and Wellington are now being extended to other centres around the country.
DEANZ (Distance Education Association of New Zealand) is a national association committed to fostering growth, development, research and good practice in distance education, open learning and flexible delivery systems for education. DEANZ is made up of individual and institutional members mainly from within New Zealand but also from the Pacific Rim. Distance, open learning and flexible delivery systems use educational and telecommunications technology such as printed materials, video or teleconferencing, e-mail, internet and television. They aim to give students as much control as possible over what, when, where and how they learn. The membership comes from all sectors within education - pre-school, primary, secondary, vocational and tertiary. We are committed to lifelong learning. Membership is open to person or institution with an interest in open flexible and/or distance learning. Members include students and parents of students as well as education providers and their institutions. The aim of DEANZ is to foster high standards in the practice of education in New Zealand and its overseas offerings, particularly through strategies associated with open, flexible and distance learning.
In addition to its web site and bi-annual conference, DEANZ publishes a scholarly Journal of Open Fexible and Distance Learning, the DEANZ Magazine, offers webinars and policy input. It is a member of the Tertiary eLearning Refernce Group.
The e-Learning Research Network is for teachers, educators and researchers to share and discuss the evidence about the impact of e-learning on New Zealand education. The goal of the network is to spread this knowledge across the sector to support quality teaching and learning. The network provides links to and summaries of New Zealand and international research, with opportunities for discussion.
KAREN (Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network) is a data network providing high capacity, ultra high speed connections between New Zealand's universities, polytechnics, Crown research institutes, schools, libraries, museums and archives, and out to the rest of the world. KAREN is dedicated to enabling faster, better and different education, research and innovation in New Zealand. KAREN consists of a dedicated, high performance national backbone network connecting 23 Points of Presence, or PoPs throughout New Zealand. KAREN can carry huge amounts of data 10 gigabits a second, 200,000 times faster than dial-up internet and 10,000 times faster than a standard broadband connection.
Virtual initiatives in schools
Te Kura/The Correspondence School is New Zealand’s largest school, with more than 24,000 students a year studying full or part-time, and staff based around the country. They provide personalised learning programmes for students from early childhood to Year 13, as well as for adult learners and those with special education needs. The students live in every part of the country and overseas. Depending on the course of study, they provide online support and teaching materials such as booklets, workbooks, readers, audio resources, CDs and DVDs, an MP3 recorder, interactive CD-ROMs, textbooks, mathematics and science boxes, art packs, and craft materials for technology.
VEN was set up in 2001 by the Community Trust of Otago to provide standards, governance and management over an educational environment. All schools which joined VEN were able to take advantage of the services that had been created for the members. VEN is registered with the Charities commission as a charitable organisation (not for profit). The company is managed in a way which reflects the needs and desires of the main users (who can only be NZ schools or educational institutions). Collaboration, communication and community are key drivers of VEN. VEN is effectively a Board of Trustees continually developing the policies surrounding the environment. Once a member of VEN, schools are able to access services such as SchoolZone and The Education Hub. VEN negotiates with the service providers and interested stakeholders on behalf of the users eg FX, Otago Polytechnic, Telecom, Editure, and the MoE.
Supported by the Ministry of Education, the Virtual Learning Network is a community of primary, secondary, and area schools plus tertiary organizations, community, and government ministries and agencies across New Zealand that share expertise and professional learning, classes, and resources. Facilitated by 13 ePrincipals and supported by two senior advisors, collaboration is supported by the same tools offered to students: video conferencing, mobile phones, face-to-face events, discussion forums, blogs, wikis, and other web2.0 tools. One of the most important roles of the network is to enable a brokerage system supported by a time-tabling database by which schools in clusters (a group of between 6-10 schools) are able to share classes on a like-for-like basis, in order to extend the range of subject choices available to students. Clusters tend to be organized by geography or reflect special character networks or educational philosophy, such as schools that teach in Maori, Catholic schools, and Montessori schools, and are bound together by a verbal agreement, including a set of verbal protocols they must adhere to and are issued with before they join. Other current activities of the network include: supporting other ‘out of school’ programs and less formal events such as virtual field trips, international collaborative class projects, and inter-school competitions; expanding the eLearning tool box to include asynchronous and other synchronous tools such as web conferencing and session recording services, ePortfolios, learning management systems, and eLearning authoring tools; the provision of Professional Learning opportunities, connecting teachers, the advisory service, and experts in their fields; encouraging a move away from the delivery model of learning to a collaborative model of learning where asynchronous tools are as important as synchronous ones and video conferencing is not the only synchronous tool used; holding a monthly meeting between ePrincipals and VLN advisors via video conference to share best practices and access expertise where it is not readily available locally; ePrincipals working with schools, staff, and students to share best practices and support the needs of all within the cluster.
The eTime Virtual School provides opportunities for children in Years 5- 8 to learn in an online environment. Once students enrol they will join a virtual classroom targeted at their age level and based on the New Zealand Curriculum. They are supported by eTime's staff online and an adult at home or school, as well as the others in the class!
The eTime web site is at http://etimevirtual.ultranet.school.nz/Home/
NZVS allows students to study courses contributing to NCEA (National Certificate of Educational Achievement -the main school-leaving qualification) and industry based National Certificates. Thus it is a virtual college as well as a virtual school.
Students can use GLO to log onto the lesson of their choice and work through the study notes in their own time before taking a short multi-choice quiz. The student can then submit the quiz, which is marked before the results are returned to give instant feedback on the knowledge they have gained. A GLO student can then see how they fared, with suggested answers helping enhance their understanding of the topic. GLO uses the latest Internet technologies to provide the lesson content and instant quiz marking. GLO is learning made easy, working to help Kiwi students get the best out of their education.
Not clear whether this service is still running. Website constructed as long as 10 years ago.
Over more than a decade LEARNZ has evolved into a comprehensive virtual field programme for the education sector. It is now available free for all New Zealand registered and provisionally-registered teachers using their Teacher Registration Board number. During a field trip students stay at school but visit places they would never otherwise go to and interact with people they would never meet. Students' participation is supported by online background materials and activities, and is enabled using live audioconferencing, web board and diaries, images and videos uploaded daily.
The aim of this commons is to foster the collaborative development of a sustainable Open Education Resource (OER) ecosystem for New Zealand teachers to create, share, repurpose and reuse digital content in support of the national curriculum. This is a project developed by teachers for teachers. The reusable and portable content project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education under the Managed Learning Environment initiative and will focus on three streams: capability and community development; software and tools development to improve the usability of the technology for newcomers to collaborative online authoring and content integration with the technology platforms of the Ministry and approved LMS vendors; seeding OER content development for use in New Zealand schools.
Virtual initiatives in post-secondary education
This is a college in Christchurch which allows some of its courses to be taken via distance methods.
LearnOnline.Health.nz is a vocational training resource hub for New Zealand’s health practitioners brought to you by the Ministry of Health. The site is managed and supported by e-learning specialists, Kineo. They welcome health-related organisations to use LearnOnline as an e-learning platform. LearnOnline is designed to enable multiple stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health, Nursing Council of New Zealand, Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners, education and training providers and District Health Boards to have access to best-of-breed e-learning functionality and learning activities. These range from induction programmes at individual DHBs to nationwide professional development programmes such as immunisation, antenatal screening, infection control and hepatitis C - without having to replicate the technical investment for each project.
Distance learning providers
Massey Univesity is New Zealand's only national university, with roughly 36,000 students. It has multiple campuses in Auckland, Wellington and Palmerston North and has a 50-year history as a leader in distance ('extramural') learning. In 2009, 18,000 enrolled students were distance learners. Massey provides distance students with a blend of print-based and electronic learning activities and resources and has recently adopted Moodle (rebranded Stream) as its official Learning Management System. It has a long history of innovation in teaching through new technologies and was the lead developer of the open source Mahara eportfolio system, now being used throughout the world.
Further information about distance education is available from http://extramural.massey.ac.nz.
The University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, is that country's oldest university. It had over 20,000 students enrolled during the 2007 academic year. Since 1985, the University has supported distance learning, using a variety of learning materials and teaching media. A number of courses are available in purely online mode.
The University of Otago web site is at http://www.otago.ac.nz/
The Victoria University of Wellington supports numerous distance and online education efforts. There are central distance options for professional development and continuing education seekers; as well as degree programs run on a faculty-by-faculty basis. Level on online participation varies extensively depending on each department.
The University has about 21,000 students (including ~2800 international students), of whom 14,000 are full-time equivalent (FTE/EFTS) undergraduates. It has 1,930 full-time equivalent staff.
As noted on the Distance Learning web site, the university offers a full range of education programmes by distance, ranging from undergraduate degrees to graduate diplomas and master's programmes.
The Victoria University of Wellington web site is at http://www.victoria.ac.nz/home/default.aspx
The University of Canterbury College of Education brought this university into distance education when the Christchurch Teachers College merged with the university in 2008 (see Hunt, Mackey, Dabner, ... Davis et al 2011). The distance education mode is now known as a Flexible Learning Option (FLO) that complements the on campus offering in Christchurch and is blended with some face-to-face courses for study on regional campuses including Rotorua and Nelson. Culturally senstivie programmes prepare teachers for early childhood centres, schools and tertiary education. Postgraduate courses are also offered through FLO.
Almost all of the university's courses, regardless of mode, now have an associated course in the UC Moodle LMS (called Learn), with is supported by the Electronic Media group led by Dr Herbert Thomas. The adoption of blended learning and teaching and related e-learning support has been increased to strengthen resiliance, stimulated in part by the earthquake experienced in 2010. This university has also been very innoative with social networking including the recent adoption of FaceBook (see Dabner, 2011) and PeerWise (see Mackey et al, 2012).
Other post-secondary institutions
Many of these offer college-level as well as university-level provision
The Open Polytechic is a specialist institution of distance learning based near Wellington, New Zealand, in the area of Lower Hutt, with Learning Centres in Auckland and Christchurch. It has just over 34,000 students, equating to around 7,000 equivalent full time students. There are rather more women than men students (57:43), and around 13% of students declare themselves to be of Maori ethnicity. It uses Moodle. Courses cover the full range of post-secondary provision, including college-level and university-level programmes.
The Open Polytechic web site is at http://openpolytechnic.ac.nz
The Southern Institute of Technology (SIT) is a Tertiary Education Institution in the province of Southland, New Zealand. Its main campus is situated in Invercargill, with satellite campuses are located in Gore and Christchurch. SIT offers over 130 programmes including certificates, diplomas, degrees and postgraduate study options. SIT has around 13,000 students.
SIT2LRN is the multimedia "Flexible Mixed Mode Delivery" option offered by the Southern Institute of Technology. Its courses are delivered via their learning environment and may also include a combination of television, the internet, email and paper-based materials. Certificates and diplomas are available via SIT2LRN.
The SIT web site is at http://www.sit.ac.nz
The Universal College of Learning (UCOL) supports a variety of online learning courses (among other learning options). UCOL was founded in 1906 as the Palmerston North Technical School in Palmerston North, New Zealand, In 1971 it became the Palmerston North Technical Institute, and in 1983, the Manawatu Polytechnic. Per the UCOL web site, the school has retained a focus on core vocational programmes, although it also delivers Foundation and Certificate programmes, Diplomas, Degrees and some Post-Graduate options (as well as community-based programmes).
A list of online course offerings/certificates can be found here: http://www.ucol.ac.nz/Online/main.asp?page=303
This appears to have a post-secondary aspect also.
Laidlaw College has a centre for distance learning. The Centre for Distance Learning (CDL) is an integrated part of teaching and learning at Laidlaw College. CDL courses bring together a blend of multimedia, virtual classrooms, online tutoring, and up-to-date scholarship. The following programmes are available by distance learning: Diploma of Biblical Studies, Bachelor of Theology, Bachelor of Ministries and Graduate Diploma in Theology.
The International Career Institute is a private provider of education and training whose purpose is: to create and advance new and existing career prospects for its learners; to cater to a broad range of people ranging from school leavers to men and women in established careers; to offer programs that focus on the application of theory, concepts and skills so that graduates can meet future challenges that may be presented; to provide curricula developed in consultation with practitioner faculty who are industry experts.
EeL was initiated to provide students with an interest in equine studies a pathway to a nationally recognised qualification and to encourage people to stay in the industry while studying. When students have completed the on-line work of the knowledge component, Equine eLearning and the Equine Industry Training Organisation can assist with work experience placements and assessment of the practical components of the unit standards throughout New Zealand.
This college allows its students to study homeopathy via e-learning methods such as powerpoints, videos of lectures and videos of homeopathic consultations.
Campus-based universities with significant e-learning activity
In addition to those noted above these include:
New Zealand is the home of the EMM methodology, developed by Dr Stephen Marshall at the University of Wellington. He was a consultant to the UK Higher Education Academy Benchmarking Exercise. After a large amount of government-funded activity (see the 9 MB report) in 2004-2005, where nine institutions were benchmarked (six universities and three polytechnics), recently (up to summer 2007) there does not seem to be an externally funded benchmarking programme oriented to New Zealand tertiary institutions - but this situation may soon change.
Potentially interesting article on benefits and barriers for e-learning in tertiary education in New Zealand: http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/elliott-r.pdf
Review of some of the effects of e-learning: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ict/e-learning-and-implications-for-new-zealand-schools-a-literature-review/executive-summary
Culturally sensitive pedagogies inclusive of indigenous world views /kaupapa
In this bi-cultural nation the respect for New Zealand's indigenous people (Māori) is the most important notable practice, including dispelling the popular misconception that distance education does not fit with their philosophies / kaupapa. A common phrase in education is "success for Māori as Māori", which is linked with the Treaty of Waitangi.
... More to be added including references on this point (e.g. Durie, 2010; Davis, 2010).
The Minstry of Education VLN provides support for a range of e-learning clusters of rural schools, which originated with CantaTech in Canterbury region around 2000. Recent research supported by DEANZ and the VLN by Micheal Barbour, Derek Wenmoth and Niki Davis (see 2011 VLN report and DEANZ webinar) was structured using the VLN Learning Communities Online (LCO) handbook.
Around twelve e-learning clusters of schools currently provide distance courses within and between their schools often using video conferencing for one hour per week. More mature clusters also support an increasing range of blended and web enhanced learning and teaching. The most mature clusters are probably CantaNet and OtagoNet and the most recently emerged serves the less rural cluster of HarbourNet on the north shore adjacent to the city of Auckland. There is also a primary e-learning cluster to support distance learning in primary schools, including additional support for language learning (Maori te reo, Japanese etc) and students with English as a second language (Roberts, 2011).
These VLN e-learning clusters have joined with Te Kura, The Correspondance School (also supported by VLN) to form a the nationwide VLNC (VLN Community).
See also Australia.